Corruption and education: an interdisciplinary approach
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Objective. This article will begin by defining corruption, looking at the causes of and phenomenon correlated with corruption, as well as comparing some of the current solutions being proposed for dealing with it, and attempt to determine if higher education could lead to corruption. The aim of this research is to accept one of the following hypotheses: H1 : Higher Education might lead to corruption in developing countries H0 : Higher Education does not necessarily lead to corruption in developing countries Also important to this analysis is the notion that by focusing on providing basic resources, to citizens with-in society, an anti-corruption scheme is laying the foundation for long term corruption reduction, something that, despite the recently heightened attention and billions of dollars of funding world wide has been elusive thus far among anti-corruption initiatives. Method. In order to achieve this aim an interdisciplinary analytical model of corruption phenomena is created where a (1) Micro analysis (2) Marco analysis (3) Wide analysis and finally a (4) Long analysis are assessed and combined in order to form a deeper understanding of education and its interplay with corruption. With-in this model various research and theories from diverse disciplines will be considered, some of which perhaps for the first time in connection with corruption, including; the social cognitive theory, Kohlberg’s framework of moral development, Klitgaard’s C = M + D - A corruption calculus, and the resource arena view of quality of life originated by Coleman (1971) and adapted by Falkenberg (1998), in conjunction with a review of select empirical findings and widely supported theoretical concepts to include moral suasion. Personal interviews with subject matter experts from USAID will also be included in the analysis. Both perception and experience based corruption data will be used in the analysis, which is intended to add credibility to this interdisciplinary look at corruption and education due to the ever-prevalent questions of accuracy and reliability regarding corruption occurrence figures. The aim of using an interdisciplinary approach is to begin to create linkages between disciples and fill gaps that have prevented a holistic understanding of corruption and the phenomena surrounding it. Results. This article identifies a large divide in education between individuals in country leadership and the average citizen to be a potential cause of corruption in developing countries while an over all increase in education levels in society is thought to decrease corruption and build the foundations needed in a society for long term corruption reduction. Conclusion. The most important discovery of this article is the current lack of interdisciplinary cooperation among researchers in the many disciplines that are involved in anti-corruption initiatives. The hope is that the interdisciplinary model created here can be further used to create linkages that will allow for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon surrounding corruption. Future research is needed in order to create these linkages between the varied disciplines involved in the complex phenomena surrounding corruption, especially where a distinct lack of attention to some of the social sciences such as psychology and history was revealed while current research, and policy creation, has been heavily weighted toward economic causes and cures perhaps detrimentally to all but the elite in developing countries. This article does its part by using an interdisciplinary model of analysis to find support for the notion that anti-corruption schemes will be more effective in the long run if, among other things, they make narrowing the education gap between the general population in society and the highly educated leadership in developing countries a high priority.
Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2010