Programmering i matematikk – muligheter og utfordringer : En studie rundt innføringen av programmering som del av matematikkfaget i den norske skolen og hvilke argumenter som taler for eller imot innføringen
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Elaboration and renewal of the Norwegian curricula have givenopportunities to provide feedback through consultation inputs on the drafts for both the core elements and the curriculum itself. After the first draft of the core elements of mathematics was submitted for consultation, it was stated that programming would become part of the mathematics subject. This created a lot of debate, and the summary of the consultation input showed that there was great opposition to this in many of the academic communities in Norway. However, Norway is late in introducing programming in the curriculum compared to many other countries in Europe, e.g. both Sweden and Finland have already introduced programming in their curriculum. The aim of this study was to investigate what opportunities and challenges the introduction of programming in mathematics can provide, and what preconditions should form the basis for the success of programming. With this background, the research questions for this thesis were:1.What arguments can be used for or against the introduction of programming in the mathematics subject?2.What is necessary tosucceed with the implementation of programming in mathematics?I have used a generic qualitative method, to prosess my research questions. I have undertaken a documentary study where consultation input, parliamentary reports, various studies and research were studied. The document study led tothe designing of the interview guide, and five informants who are experienced in mathematics and programming and/or were involved in the preparation of the core elements and the design of the curriculum, were interviewed. The interviews were conducted as in-depth interviews. To analyze the interviews, the data were transcribed, and by use ofNvivo program, were coded and categorised using thematic analysis. The findings contain relevant statements and quotations that pertinent tothe research questions.The study shows that programming can give teachers and students many new opportunities in the mathematics field. Students often use pre-made programs, but now they can build some of these programs themselves, such asderivation which can contribute to a greater depth learning. Programming requires algorithmic thinking, problem solving skills and collaboration, which are considered as important competencies for the future. Programming will nevertheless lead to content overloadin the mathematics profession and it will require time to developthe tool, both for students and for teachers. Most preferably, programming should come as a separate subject, something both informants and investigators point out. Many students in lowerand upper secondary school will now have up to three digital tools to deal with in the mathematic class which can be challenging. Nevertheless, it was emphasised that programming can be engaging, and in this way contribute to increased motivation and perseverance for the students.In order to succeed with the implementation of programming, it was emphasised by all informants that it is the teacher’s professional and didactic competence that is crucial. Teachercompetence in programming is very low, as this has not been part of teacher education. To increase this competence, a massive coursing and education is required. It is important that teachers see the value of using programming in the mathematics subject and that using this tool can help to increase students’ academic performance. The written exam is also an important viifactor that influences how much time teachers will spend on working on programming in math lessons, this is called the washback effect. Experience with the introduction of the tool Geogebra showed that the exam was crucial to whether the teacher implemented Geogebra the classroom or not.The fact that school management and the Directorate of Education now devote time and resources to allow teachers to learn the tool is very important, so that teachers and schools succeed in meeting the requirements of the new curriculum and the core elements that are now set.
Masteroppgave matematikkdidaktikk MA502 – Universitetet i Agder 2019