Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) among Norwegian male athletes. Energy availability, health, and performance among male athletes at different age and performance levels
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Original versionStenqvist, T. B. (2021). Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) among Norwegian male athletes. Energy availability, health, and performance among male athletes at different age and performance levels [PhD. thesis]. University of Agder.
Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a syndrome where low energy availability (LEA) has a negative impact on health [e.g., endocrine and metabolic alterations, reproductive dysfunction, impaired bone mineral density (BMD)] and performance. In females, the development and prevalence of RED-S have been well-investigated. However, research on males of all ages and performance levels is lacking. The overall aim of this dissertation was therefore to investigate RED-S among Norwegian male athletes at different age and performance levels. Three independent studies have been performed, and three original papers are included in this dissertation. The aims of Studies I and II were to investigate RED-S in well-trained and Olympic-level adult athletes, whereas Study III investigated RED-S among adolescent athletes attending elite sport high schools. Study I investigated how a four-week intensified endurance training period specifically designed to increase aerobic performance would affect markers of RED-S, including resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and bone health, energy intake (EI), and metabolic and endocrine markers in well-trained cyclists. Study II investigated the prevalence of surrogate RED-S markers in a cohort of Norwegian Olympic-level athletes using similar markers as in Study I, including RMR, body composition, bone health, and altered metabolic and endocrine markers. Study III investigated RED-S in adolescent endurance athletes attending Norwegian elite sport high schools over a three-year period, with special attention to bone health, energy availability (EA), RMR, as well as aerobic performance and muscular strength.
Paper III is excluded from the dissertation until it will be published.
Has partsPaper I: Stenqvist, T. B., Torstveit, M. K., Faber, J. & Melin, A. K. (2020). Impact of a 4-Week Intensified Endurance Training Intervention on Markers of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) and Performance Among Well-trained Male Cyclists. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 11: 512365. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.512365 Published version. Full-text is available in AURA as a separate file: https://hdl.handle.net/11250/2681455.
Paper II: Stenqvist, T. B., Melin, A. K., Garthe, I., Slater, G. S., Paulsen, G., Iraki, J., Areta, J. & Torstveit, M. K. (2021). Prevalence of surrogate markers of relative energy deficiency in male Norwegian Olympic-level athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 31(6), 497-506. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2020-0368. Accepted manuscript. Full-text is available in AURA as a separate file: https://hdl.handle.net/11250/2833239.
Paper III: Stenqvist, T. B., Melin, A. K. & Torstveit, M. K. (Forthcoming). Prevalence of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport in male adolescent endurance athletes: A 3-year longitudinal study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. Submitted version. Full-text is not available in AURA as a separate file.